The European Space Agency wants to set up a space weather warning system. The idea is to install a satellite at Lagrange point number 5 that can permanently monitor the Sun, to detect a dangerous solar activity before it is triggered to Earth. Provisionally baptized L5, this satellite could be launched in 2025. The realization of this and the instruments it will use are already announcing a technological challenge.
Space systems have become indispensable in our daily lives and are sensitive to the weather phenomena that solar activity generates.
In the same way that physicists describe heat as thermal energy. In the international system it is measured in joules (J). The heat corresponds more precisely to a transfer … "data-image =" https://fr.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/7/3/5/735709801b_92578_chaleur.jpg " data -url = "/ sciences / definitions / physics-heat-15898 /" data-more = "Read more">
The mass … "data-image =" https://www.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/1/d/9/1d9cd1d45f_50034577_eruption.jpg "data-url =" / sciences / definitions / universe-sun-3727 / "data-more =" Read more "> determines the on the structure of the world … "data-image =" https://fr.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/8/4/e/84ff7edce5_123534_terre-apollo8.jpg "data – url = "/ planet / definitions / structure-earth-earth-4725 /" data-more = "Read more"> Solar activity is responsible for the disruptions of our space environment. In addition to emitting a continuous stream of charged particles, known as , the sun sometimes produces rashes ( ), in which billions of tons of material are removed with regard to magnetic field, magnet and field … "data-image =" https://fr.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/6 / a / a / 6aa47f5f22_85914_champ-magnetique.jpg "data-url =" / sciences / definitions / physics-magnetic field-3878 / "data-more =" Read more "> , often in Volume: cubic meters and liters
In the international system, the unit of volume is … "data-image =" https://www.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/e/2/c/f2ca76e5fc_92832_volume. jpg "data-url =" / science / definitions / physics-volume-15919 / "data-more =" Read more "> bigger than the earth. This particle emission can damage the electronics and electrical components of the satellites, the cells of the solar panels and the quality of the information they send (TV signals, telecom, navigation). this one and geomagnetic also cause heating of the high which can extend to heights borrowed by satellites. the exercised on the satellites forces them to change course.
Space weather also has effects on Earth. Geomagnetic storms can disrupt electricity distribution networks, communication
Invention of X-rays
The discovery of … "data-image =" https://www.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/d/0/d/d0d21d96c0_50034252_372px-backscatter-x-ray-image- woman-02.jpg "data-url =" / science / definitions / physics-ray-x-1002 / "data-more =" Read more "> a lung functions on radio
The role of both lungs is to exchange gas between the human body and the surrounding air. These exchanges take place at the level of the alveoli, where the blood is then enriched with oxygen and carbon dioxide is depleted …. "data-image =" https://fr.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6 /images/midioriginal/4/8/3/483ff8575d_50035566_poumons-wwwcfeducationca.jpg "data-url =" / health / definitions / biology-lung-7024 / "data-more =" Read more "> and are also sensitive to radiation doses that are five to ten times higher than those on the ground.
Finally, solar radiation represents one
The moon with a capital "L" is the only natural satellite of the earth; it is probably the result of a collision there is 4.4 … "data-image =" https://fr.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/c/7/8 / c785911d64_50034415_lune- 05.jpg "data-url =" / sciences / definitions / universe-moon-2550 / "data-more =" Read more "> and Mars.
On the way to a predictive solar weather
The prediction of solar activity and the conditions of the space environment is therefore a necessity today. The latest European Space Agency study represents a gateway to space for Europe. Its mission is to shape the development of European space capabilities and … "data-image =" https://fr.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/0/9 / f / 09f0b05e28_50034401_logo-esa-fs.jpg "data-url =" / sciences / definitions / univers-esa-2466 / "data-more =" Read more ">estimated that the potential socio-economic impact of a single space weather event in Europe could be € 15 billion. However, a large proportion of these failures can be prevented with accurate predictions. ESA is therefore preparing an early warning mission for potentially harmful space weather phenomena. This mission consists of placing a satellite on the points of Lagrange for the very first time … "data-image =" https://fr.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal / 1 /e/e/1ee29c0d91_50034744_point-lagrange-nasa-wmap-science-team-01.jpg "data-url =" / sciences / definitions / universe-point-lagrange-4540 / "data-more =" Read more "> number 5, which allows us to constantly observe our side which is not visible from the earth. From this observatory, this space weather satellite, for the time being called L5, can study extreme solar events before they are visible from Earth. L5 will provide data for such as conventional and very short-term predictions of solar activity and alerts and warns scientific, commercial and civilian customers when solar activity is likely to be a risk.
At this equidistant point of the earth and the sun, L5 will be able to identify the storm segments of the surface of the sun before their rotation to look at the earth, and then follow the formation of the clouds.
The quantity … "data-image =" https://www.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/b/7/e/b7e2382b95_59611_mer-nights-seblino-camptocamporg-cc-30 .jpg "data-url =" / planet / definitions / climatology-cloud-14525 / "data-more =" Read more "> From CME when they go to us. But that is not all, L5 will also be able to observe both the sun and the earth, as well as the space between them. The result is that it is in the line of sight of the space weather, so that it is highly exposed to radiation and particles. This wind is very scarce (10 particles per cubic centimeter), but very fast (400 to 800) km / s). It is a supersonic wind (it moves faster than waves … "data-url =" / sciences / definitions / wind-solar-universe-2445 / "data-more =" Read more "> .
However, these instruments must continue to work at the height of time. There are no specific characteristics for … "data-image =" https://en.cdn.v5.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images /midioriginal/b/9/7/b97fffc285_117970_tempete-littoral.jpg "data -url = "/ planet / definitions / climatology-storm-14551 /" data-more = "Read more">. When other satellites go to sleep, L5 must remain in operation and continue to provide services. As ESA space specialist Piers Jiggens explains: " on earth it would not be acceptable to have an infrastructure of it that stops working when happens because the cover would be lost when extreme weather conditions affect our lives the most. It will be the same in space ".
This satellite and its instruments will be hardened to withstand these radiations. L5 also has onemaking it an intelligent strategy for error detection, data isolation, and data recovery on-board.
This space weather mission has not yet been formally approved by the governing bodies of the European Space Agency. Ministers responsible for space matters from the 22 ESA Member States, Slovenia and Canada, who will meet at ministerial level at the ESA Council at the end of the year, will have to decide whether they want to finance this mission. If this is the case, L5 will be launched by 2025.
What to remember
- ESA wants to install a satellite (provisionally referred to as L5) at Lagrange point number 5 to monitor and prevent a potentially dangerous activity of the sun for the space environment and the earth.
- This space weather warning system must work during intense space phenomena and be resistant to very high levels of radiation and particle flux.
- If the funding for this mission is approved at the meeting of the ESA Council at ministerial level, the L5 satellite can be launched by 2025.