This article was commissioned by the Food and Drug Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare, and executed by a pan-scientific plan
Editor’s note: Taiwan’s laws and regulations only stipulate the certification and labeling specifications of “healthy foods”. The “health foods” mentioned in this article are only foods that are commonly used by ordinary people to call “foods that have a certain effect but have not passed verification”, and are not legal terms. .
“Cure the disease if you have a disease, and strengthen the body without the disease.” Did you also think so in your mind when buying health food? How to buy health food? Who should buy it again? How can I eat it again? On November 29, 2016, “PanSci TALK: How to choose health food? How to eat it?” Dietitian Lin Shihang was invited to share with him the current health food usage status and the parts that everyone should pay attention to when choosing.
What should you eat?
“Why do you want to eat health food?” Is it because you want to replenish your body? Or is it because everyone is eating? In this era of the proliferation of Internet and social software, health food information is not difficult to obtain, but there are different opinions. What is correct?
According to the “Taiwan Eating Cognitive Behavior Survey” published by Jin Huimin, director of the Nutrition Department of Taipei United Hospital in 2015, 72% of people “believe” that they have a balanced nutrition, and 70% of people “believe” that they know what they need to eat to get the nutrition they need. ; However, according to actual statistics, 99% of people do not meet the recommended intake at all.
“First, I will provide you with a memorable principle: start with “what is missing?” Lin Shihang said. “It is a fact that many modern people’s nutrition is not balanced, but,Unbalanced nutrition does not mean that health foods must be supplemented.I thinkImproving diet is the cureTaking nuts as an example, the recommended daily amount for an adult actually only needs two walnuts to meet the standard. A little attention to dietary intake is actually simpler than eating health foods. “
The bigger the tank, the more cost-effective?
Of course, things are not just as simple as whether to eat or not. The “intake” of health foods is also a problem that makes many people at a loss.
“What is the standard intake?” Lin Shihang suggested that you can refer to the “Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)” issued by the National Health Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare, which contains the estimated average intake (Estimated Average Requirements, EAR), Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), Adequate Intakes (AI) and Upper Level (UL) and other items.
The Basic Average Intake (EAR) represents “50% of Chinese people’s intake needs”, that is, the half of the people whose physical condition is closer to the average, but want to take into account the needs of the other 50% of Chinese people who are “far from the average” , You have to refer to the recommended dietary intake (RDA), which represents 97-98% of the dietary needs of the Chinese people. Therefore, the recommended dietary intake (RDA) can be said to be the “minimum” intake standard per person per day. In addition, the upper limit intake (UL) is the tolerable “maximum intake”. Eating more than this standard is not necessarily harmful, but it is absolutely not beneficial. It may also cause the accumulation of nutrient toxicity and increase the risk of disease.
Take vitamins as an example: we eat too much more often than not enough
Lin Shihang mentioned that what Taiwanese people often encounter when they consume health foods is not insufficient intake, but excessive intake. Among them, vitamins are used most frequently.
“But why do you abuse it by accident?” Taking vitamin A as an example, the recommended daily intake per person is about 600 micrograms, and the upper limit is 3,000 micrograms. When converted into daily food, it is actually 28 grams of carrots, or It is 16 grams of pork liver, so it is not difficult to get enough, but it is very likely to overdose (order a portion of fried pork liver with leeks to eat by yourself, it will be too much!).
“Excessive vitamin A may cause fractures (such as a 64% increase in the risk of fractures and a 14% increase in the risk of hip fractures), and it will increase the prevalence of teratogenesis.” Lin Shihang reminded, “However, most Taiwanese sources of vitamin A intake It is a carotenoid that is not highly toxic. On the contrary, if you consume too much supplements or wipe products containing A acid, it is easy to cause problems due to excessive amounts.
In addition to vitamin A, vitamin C, which is considered to have whitening effects and prevent colds, is also a frequent visitor to the “must-buy list”.
However, according to statistics of about 30 studies in the past few decades, it can be found that those who take vitamin C for a short time have an overallIn fact, it only dropped by about 5%.(“If it is me, I should choose to exercise more to improve physical strength and prevent colds.” Lin Shihang added); but if it is taken “long-term”, the overall process of colds can be shortened (children can be shortened by 13.2%, adults can be shortened by 7.7% ), therefore, if you want a cold to go away sooner, you can’t hold yourself back. Finally, taking vitamin C after a cold is not helpful, no, effective, oh!
In fact, the recommended daily intake of vitamin C per person is about 100 mg, which is about half a guava, or one kiwi fruit in a daily diet. However, the vitamin C on the market is easily available in hundreds to 1,000 mg, and studies have found that when the human body consumes about 400 mg of vitamin C, the body’s state has reached saturation, and the excess dose will be excreted in the urine, so eating too much is useless! In addition, taking too much vitamin C may increase the concentration of oxalic acid, thereby increasing the risk of kidney stones. Everyone should pay attention to this.
The real Digara should be eaten!
“So what are we missing?”
Lin Shihang first mentionedVitamin B1According to the 2005-2008 National Nutrition Survey, about 33% of Chinese people are potentially deficient in vitamin B1. The recommended daily intake of vitamin B1 per person is 1.2 mg for men and 0.9 mg for women. To calculate this, a 200-gram bowl of white rice contains about 0.15 mg of vitamin B1, and the same weight of brown rice has 0.74 mg. It is speculated that the lack of vitamin B1 may be related to our eating habits.
In addition,Folic acidNot to mention too much, the same survey results show that the folic acid intake of Chinese people is showing a downward trend.As forVitamin E, The recommended daily amount per person is 12 mg α-TE, but at present, the average person only eats 50-80% a day. Lin Shihang said that the above-mentioned types are generally lacking in modern people. It is recommended that supplements be used to supplement the dosage of health foods.
Choose a comprehensive balanced dose, match diet and exercise
“Is sickness is a food problem, or is it a problem with your diet?” Lin Shihang believes that food intake also involves dosage and frequency. “Eating only one packet of French fries a year will not cause high blood fat problems, but you eat one every day. Bao ended up with hyperlipidemia, is this food or is it your problem?”
Health foods only have health effects, but they are definitely not a panacea. Only with correct diet and exercise can health foods achieve real effects; if you must eat vitamins,Try to buy “comprehensive type” (such as comprehensive vitamins) to avoid over-dose. Of course, if you are really sick, you should take real medicine, and don’t let the supplementary health foods delay the timing of treatment, or even make people give up treatment.
- Jin Huimin, a survey of Taiwanese dietary cognition and behavior. The survey time was 15 days from 2015/02/05 to 2015/02/19, and a total of 657 valid questionnaires were returned to investigate people’s knowledge of their own diet and general daily eating behavior.