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Today’s district of Rensefeld was first mentioned in a document in 1177, and in 1215 the bishop’s mill in Schwartau was mentioned in a document. In 1280, Bishop Burchard of Lübeck founded the Kaltenhof farm outside the city of Lübeck on the Schwartau River.

Around 1640 the episcopal office of Kaltenhof, which was created there, was relocated to Schwartau, which developed into a market town. In 1842 the offices of Kaltenhof and Großvogtei were combined to form the office of Schwartau. Schwartau was already a climatic health resort before 1900.

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