The number of people shopping in the United Kingdom in November dropped to its lowest level since the 2008 recession, retail researchers say.
The number of visitors to shopping centers, retail parks and High Streets fell by 3.2%, according to Springboard.
The numbers showed that the Black Friday effect stimulated more online shopping for a longer period, according to the company.
The decline was "irrefutable evidence" that Black Friday was of no use to physical stores, it added.
Springboard said the expected number of visitors would decrease by 4.2% in December, a larger decrease than the 3.5% decline in December 2017.
"These figures are the worst figures of pedestrians Springboard has recorded since the recession and we're not really in a recession," says Diane Wehrle, Director of Marketing and Insights at Springboard.
"It is clear that something important is happening in the area of consumer demand, it has really shied off this year."
Ms. Wehrle warned that more High Street chains would collapse in January.
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The growth of online shopping was one of the biggest challenges for the British High Streets, which have seen a number of store chains collapse this year as trade conditions deteriorate.
Springboard said the political unrest in the UK about Brexit also had an impact on customers' purchase decisions.
"While we are at the height of the retail calendar, both retailers and consumers have been in the greatest uncertainty lately," said Ms. Wehrle.
"However, the fact that the parliamentary vote will only take place in mid-December may give some retailers a slight glimmer of hope, as consumers can now buy them sooner than later in an attempt to avoid inflationary pressures if the Brexit deal is not ratified. . "